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Sunday, 03 December 2017

Surat Al-Anaam/Cattle -- Meccan –Ayats 165 – Section – Five – Verses From 74-90


And (remember) when Ibrahim said to his father –Azar: “Do you take idols for gods? Verily, I see you and your people in manifest error. (74)

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ آَزَرَ أَتَتَّخِذُ أَصْنَامًا آَلِهَةً إِنِّي أَرَاكَ وَقَوْمَكَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ (74)

Thus We do show Ibrahim the kingdom/the power and the laws of the heavens and the earth that he might (with understanding) have Faith and certitude. (75)  

وَكَذَلِكَ نُرِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ مَلَكُوتَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلِيَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُوقِنِينَ (75)

When the night covered him over with darkness, he saw star: he said:”This is my Lord”. But when it set, he said:”I like/love not those that set”. (76)

فَلَمَّا جَنَّ عَلَيْهِ اللَّيْلُ رَأَى كَوْكَبًا قَالَ هَذَا رَبِّي فَلَمَّا أَفَلَ قَالَ لَا أُحِبُّ الْآَفِلِينَ (76)

When he saw the moon rising in splendor, he said: “This is my Lord”. But when the moon set, he said: “Unless my Lord guides me, I surely among those people who go astray” (77) 

فَلَمَّا رَأَى الْقَمَرَ بَازِغًا قَالَ هَذَا رَبِّي فَلَمَّا أَفَلَ قَالَ لَئِنْ لَمْ يَهْدِنِي رَبِّي لَأَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الضَّالِّينَ (77)

When he saw the sun rising up in splendor, he said:”This is my Lord, this is greatest (of all)”. But when the sun set, he said:”O’ my people! I am indeed free from all that your (guilt) of giving/join as partners to God. (78)      

فَلَمَّا رَأَى الشَّمْسَ بَازِغَةً قَالَ هَذَا رَبِّي هَذَا أَكْبَرُ فَلَمَّا أَفَلَتْ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ (78)

Verily, (for me) I have set my face, firmly and truly, towards Him who created the heavens and the earth –in true Islamic monotheism-true belief worshipping God Alone- and never shall I give partners to God. (79)  

إِنِّي وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ (79)

His people disputed with him. He said:”Do you dispute with me about God, when He (Himself) has guided me? And I fear not (the beings) whom you associate with Him (God) in worship (nothing can happen to me) except my Lord Wills something. My Lord comprehends in His Knowledge all things. Will you not (yourselves) be admonished and then remember? (80)

وَحَاجَّهُ قَوْمُهُ قَالَ أَتُحَاجُّونِّي فِي اللَّهِ وَقَدْ هَدَانِ وَلَا أَخَافُ مَا تُشْرِكُونَ بِهِ إِلَّا أَنْ يَشَاءَ رَبِّي شَيْئًا وَسِعَ رَبِّي كُلَّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا أَفَلَا تَتَذَكَّرُونَ (80)

“And how should I fear those (beings) that you associate in worship with Him (God); when you do not fear that you give/joined partnership to God without any warrant/authority having been given you? So which of us –the two parties has more right to be in security? (Tell me) if you know?” (81) 

وَكَيْفَ أَخَافُ مَا أَشْرَكْتُمْ وَلَا تَخَافُونَ أَنَّكُمْ أَشْرَكْتُمْ بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا فَأَيُّ الْفَرِيقَيْنِ أَحَقُّ بِالْأَمْنِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ (81)

“It is those who believe and confuse not their beliefs with wrong (iniquitous), those are truly in security, for they are on the right guidance. (82)

الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُوا إِيمَانَهُمْ بِظُلْمٍ أُولَئِكَ لَهُمُ الْأَمْنُ وَهُمْ مُهْتَدُونَ (82)

And that was Our Evidence/Proof which We gave to Ibrahim (to use) against his people. We raise whom We will degrees after degrees. Certainly your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing (full of wisdom and knowledge). (83) 

وَتِلْكَ حُجَّتُنَا آَتَيْنَاهَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَلَى قَوْمِهِ نَرْفَعُ دَرَجَاتٍ مَنْ نَشَاءُ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ (83)

And We gave/bestowed upon him Isaac and Jacob, all (three) of them We guided; and before him We guided Noah, and among his progeny David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, and Aaron; thus We do reward the good-doers. (84)

وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ كُلًّا هَدَيْنَا وَنُوحًا هَدَيْنَا مِنْ قَبْلُ وَمِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِهِ دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَى وَهَارُونَ وَكَذَلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ (84)

And Zakaria (Zechariah) and John, and Jesus and Elias: all in the ranks of the righteous. (85)

وَزَكَرِيَّا وَيَحْيَى وَعِيسَى وَإِلْيَاسَ كُلٌّ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ (85)

And Ismail, and Elisha, and Jonas, and Lot: and to all We gave favor above the nations. (86)

وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَالْيَسَعَ وَيُونُسَ وَلُوطًا وَكُلًّا فَضَّلْنَا عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ (86)

(To them) and to their fathers, and progeny and brethren; We chose them, and We guided them to the Straight Way/Path. (87)

وَمِنْ آَبَائِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّاتِهِمْ وَإِخْوَانِهِمْ وَاجْتَبَيْنَاهُمْ وَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ (87)

This is the Guidance of God; He gives that guidance to whom He pleases of His worshippers. But if they were to join others gods with Him, all that they did would be vain and of no benefit for them. (88) 

ذَلِكَ هُدَى اللَّهِ يَهْدِي بِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ وَلَوْ أَشْرَكُوا لَحَبِطَ عَنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (88)

These were the men to whom We gave the Book, and the Authority, and Prophethood; if these (their descendants) reject them, Behold! We shall entrust their charges to a new People who would not reject them. (89)

أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ آَتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ فَإِنْ يَكْفُرْ بِهَا هَؤُلَاءِ فَقَدْ وَكَّلْنَا بِهَا قَوْمًا لَيْسُوا بِهَا بِكَافِرِينَ (89)

Those were the (prophets) who received God’s Guidance; cop/imitate/emulate the guidance they received; say:”No reward of this do I ask of you; this is no less than a Message for the nations” (90)

أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ فَبِهُدَاهُمُ اقْتَدِهِ قُلْ لَا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا ذِكْرَى لِلْعَالَمِينَ (90)



(Verses 74-75)- Now comes the story of Ibrahim, he lived among the Chaldeans, who had great knowledge of the stars and heavenly bodies. But he got beyond that physical world and saw the spiritual world behind. His ancestral idols meant nothing to him. That was the first step. But God took him many degrees higher. God showed him with certitude the spiritual glories behind the magnificent powers and laws of the physical universe.

(Verse 76)- This allegory shows the stages of Ibrahim’s spiritual enlightenment. It should not be supposed that he literally worshipped stars or heavenly bodies. Having seen through the folly of the ancestral idol worship, he began to see the futility of the worshipping distant beautiful things that shine, which the vulgar endue with a power which does not reside them. a type of such is a star shining in the darkness of the night. Superstition might read fortunes in it, but truer knowledge shows that it rises and sets according laws whose author is God. And its light is extinguished in the broader light of day. its worship is therefore futile. It is a Power, much less the Supreme Power.

(Verse 77)- Continuing the allegory, the moon –though she looks bigger and brighter than the star- turns out on closer knowledge, not only to set like the star, but to change her shape from hour to hour, and even to depend for her light on some other body! How deceptive are appearances!  That is not God! At the stage you begin to search for something more reliable than appearances to the eye in the darkness of the night: YOU ASK FOR GUIDANCE FROM GOD.   

(Verses 78-79)- The next stage in the allegory is the sun. You are in the open light of Day. Now you have the right clue. You see the biggest object in the heavens. But is it the biggest? There are thousands of stars in the universe bigger than the sun. And every day the sun appears and disappears from your sight. Such is not the God who created you and all these wonderful works of His. What folly to worship creatures, when we might turn to the true God?   Let us abjure and repudiate all these follies and proclaim the One True God.

(Verse 80-81-82+) – To continue Ibrahim’s allegory: if spiritual enlightenment go so far as to take a man beyond his ancestral worship, people will come to dispute with him. They will frighten him with the dire consequences of his dissent. What does he care? He has found the truth. He is free from superstitious – fears, because if has he not found the true God, without whose Will nothing can happen? On the contrary he knows that it is the godless that have just grounds for fear. And he offers admonition to them, and arguments that should bring them the clearness of truth instead of the vagueness and mystery of superstition; - the security of Faith instead of the haunting fear of those who have no clear guidance.

((Introduction to verse 83-110:- The good men and true, who succeeded Ibrahim, received the gifts of revelation and guidance, and kept alive God’s Message, which now is proclaimed in the Qur’an, in which is blessing and confirmation of all that went before. In the daily Pageants of Nature, the dawn and the restful night, the sun, the moon, the stars that guide the mariner in distant seas, the rain-clouds pouring abundance, and the fruits that delight the heart of man; can you not read Signs of God? No vision can comprehend Him, yet He Knows and comprehend all.))

(Verse 83)- The spiritual education of Ibrahim raised him many degrees above his contemporaries, and he was expected to use that knowledge and dignity for preaching the truth among his own people.

(Verse 84)- A) We have now a list of eighteen Apostles in four groups, covering the great Teachers accepted among the three great religions based on Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad [PPBUH]. The first group to be mentioned is that of Ibrahim, his son Isaac, and Isaac’s son Jacob. Ibrahim was the first to have a Book. His Book is mentioned in Surat Al-A’la 87 verse 19, though it is now lost. They were therefore the first to receive Guidance group in the sense of a Book. B) In the second group, we have the great founders of families, apart from Ibrahim, e.g. Noah, of the time of the Flood, David and Solomon, the real establishers of the Jewish monarchy; Job, who lived 140 years, saw four generations of descendants, and was blessed at the end of his life with large pastoral wealth (Job. xIii. 12: The Lord blessed Job with even more things than he had in the beginning. Job got 14,000 sheep, 6000 camels, 2,000 cows, and 1,000 female donkeys. 13: Job also got seven sons and three daughters. 14: Job named the first daughter Jeminah, Job named the second daughter Keziah, and Job named the third daughter Keren Happuch. 15: Job’s daughters were among the most beautiful women in all the country. And Job even gave part of his property to his daughters; they each got a share of the property, just like their brothers. 16: So, Job lived for 140 years more. He lived to see his children, his grandchildren, and his great-great-grandchildren.), Joseph, who as Minister of State did great things in Egypt and was the progenitor of two Tribes; and Moses and Aaron, the leaders of the Exodus from Egypt. They led active lives and called “doers of good”.

(Verse 85)- The third group consists not of men of action, but Preachers of Truth, who led solitary lives. Their epithet is; “The Righteous”. They were mystic prophets and form a connected group round Jesus. Zakaria was the father of John the Baptist, the precursor of Jesus (see Surat Al-Imran 3 verses 37-41); and Jesus referred to John the Baptist as Elias: (Matt. Xi-14: And if you will believe the things the law and the prophets said, then you will believe that John is Elijah/Elias. The Law and the prophets said he would come), and Elias is said to have been present and talked to Jesus at the Transfiguration on the Mount: (Matt. Xvii. 3: Then two men were there, talking with Jesus. The men were Moses and Elijah). Elijah is the same as Elias.

(Verse 86-87-88)- This is the last group described as those “Favored above the nations”. It consists of four men who had all great misfortunes to contend with and were concerned in the lash of nations, but they kept in the Path of God, and came through above the clash of nations. Ismail was the eldest son of Ibrahim; when he was a baby, he and his mother had nearly died of thirst in the desert round Mecca; but they were saved by the well of Zamzam, and he became the founder of the new Arab Nation. Elisha (Al-Yasa’) succeeded to the mantle of the Prophet Elijah; he lived in troublous times for both the Jewish Kingdoms (of Judah and Israel); there were wicked kings, and other nations were pressing in on them; but he performed many miracles, and some check was given to the enemies under his advice. The story of Jonas (Yunus) is well-known: he was swallowed by a fish or whale, but was saved by God’s Mercy; through his preaching, his city (Nineveh) was saved (see Surat Yunus 10 verse 98). lot was a contemporary nephew of Ibrahim; when the city of Sodom was destroyed for its wickedness, he was saved as  a just man (See Surat Al-A’raf 7 verses 80-84).

(Verses 89-90)- Them, i.e. the Book, and Authority and Prophethood. They were taken away from the other People of the Book and entrusted to the Holy Apostle Muhammad Al-Mustapha [PPBUH] and his people.