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Tuesday, 23 October 2018
 

Surat Al-Anfal = The Spoils 8 – Medinian – Ayats 75 Section Three – Ayats 38-58

 

Say to the Unbelievers, if (now) they desist (from Unbelief), their past would be forgiven them, but if they persist, the punishment of those before them is already preceded (a matter of warning for them). (38) 

قُلْ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنْ يَنْتَهُوا يُغْفَرْ لَهُمْ مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ وَإِنْ يَعُودُوا فَقَدْ مَضَتْ سُنَّةُ الْأَوَّلِينَ (38)

And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in God altogether and everywhere. But if they cease (be no hostility), verily, God is All-Seer of what they do. (39)

وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّى لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ كُلُّهُ لِلَّهِ فَإِنِ انْتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ (39)

But if they turn away, then be sure that God is your Protector/supporter and the Excellent Helper /Best to help. (40)

وَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَاكُمْ نِعْمَ الْمَوْلَى وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ (40)

And know that whatever out of all the booty -of war- that you may gain/acquire, one fifth share is assigned to God, and to the Apostle, and to the near relatives, the orphans, the needy, and the wayfarer; if you do believe in God and in the revelation We sent down to Our Servant [Muhammad PPBUH] on the Day of Testing/ Criterion, the Day of the meeting of the two forces, for God has power over all things. (41)

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ آَمَنْتُمْ بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا يَوْمَ الْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ (41)

(and remember) when you were on the hither side of the valley, and they were on farther side, and the cavalcade/caravan below you -on lower ground than you- even if you had made a mutual appointment to meet, you would certainly have failed in the appointment; but (thus you met), that God might accomplish a matter already enacted; that those who died might die after a clear Sign (had been given); and those who lived might live after a Clear Sign (had been given). And verily, God is All-Hearer, All-Knower. (42)

إِذْ أَنْتُمْ بِالْعُدْوَةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ بِالْعُدْوَةِ الْقُصْوَى وَالرَّكْبُ أَسْفَلَ مِنْكُمْ وَلَوْ تَوَاعَدْتُمْ لَاخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِي الْمِيعَادِ وَلَكِنْ لِيَقْضِيَ اللَّهُ أَمْرًا كَانَ مَفْعُولًا لِيَهْلِكَ مَنْ هَلَكَ عَنْ بَيِّنَةٍ وَيَحْيَا مَنْ حَيَّ عَنْ بَيِّنَةٍ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَسَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ (42)

(and remember) when God showed them to you [O’ Muhammad PPBUH] as few in your dream; but if He had shown them to you as many, you would surely have been discouraged, and you would surely have disputed in (your) decision: but God saved (you). Certainly, He is the All-Knower of the (secrets) of (all) hearts. (43)

إِذْ يُرِيكَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي مَنَامِكَ قَلِيلًا وَلَوْ أَرَاكَهُمْ كَثِيرًا لَفَشِلْتُمْ وَلَتَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ سَلَّمَ إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ (43)

And (remember) when you met (the army of the Unbelievers); He showed them to you as few in your eyes, and He made you appear as contemptible in their eyes: so that God might accomplish a matter that is already enacted. For to God do all questions go back (for decision). (44)

وَإِذْ يُرِيكُمُوهُمْ إِذِ الْتَقَيْتُمْ فِي أَعْيُنِكُمْ قَلِيلًا وَيُقَلِّلُكُمْ فِي أَعْيُنِهِمْ لِيَقْضِيَ اللَّهُ أَمْرًا كَانَ مَفْعُولًا وَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ الْأُمُورُ (44)

O’ you who believe! When you meet (an enemy) force, be firm (in your stance), and call God in remembrance much and often; so that you may be successful and prosper. (45)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا إِذَا لَقِيتُمْ فِئَةً فَاثْبُتُوا وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (45)

And obey God and His Apostle [PPBUH], and do not fall into disputes, lest you lose heart/courage, and your power and strength departs; and be patient and persevering. Surely, God is with those who are patiently persevering. (46) 

وَأَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلَا تَنَازَعُوا فَتَفْشَلُوا وَتَذْهَبَ رِيحُكُمْ وَاصْبِرُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ (46)

And be not like the those who came out of their homes insolently and beastly for to be seen of men, and to hinder (men) from the Path of God. For God is encircling and thoroughly comprehending all that they do. (47)

وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ خَرَجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ بَطَرًا وَرِئَاءَ النَّاسِ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ مُحِيطٌ (47)

And (remember) when the Satan has made their (sinful) acts seem alluring to them, and said:”No one among men can overcome you this day, while I am your neighbor : near you/your helper /protector”. But when the two forces came in sight of each other, he turned on his heels, and said: ”Lo! I am clear of you/have nothing to do with you; lo! I see what you see not: lo! I fear God; for God is strict and severe in punishment”. (48)

وَإِذْ زَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ وَقَالَ لَا غَالِبَ لَكُمُ الْيَوْمَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَإِنِّي جَارٌ لَكُمْ فَلَمَّا تَرَاءَتِ الْفِئَتَانِ نَكَصَ عَلَى عَقِبَيْهِ وَقَالَ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِنْكُمْ إِنِّي أَرَى مَا لَا تَرَوْنَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ وَاللَّهُ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ (48)

Lo! The hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease say:”these people (Muslims), their religion has misled and deluded them.” But whoever puts his trust in God; behold! God is All-Mighty, All-Wise. (49)

إِذْ يَقُولُ الْمُنَافِقُونَ وَالَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ غَرَّ هَؤُلَاءِ دِينُهُمْ وَمَنْ يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ (49)

And if you could see when the angels take the souls of the Unbelievers (at death), (how) they smite their faces and their backs (saying):”Taste the Penalty of the blazing Fire!”. (50)

وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذْ يَتَوَفَّى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا الْمَلَائِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَارَهُمْ وَذُوقُوا عَذَابَ الْحَرِيقِ (50)

“This is because of (the deeds) which your (own) hands sent orth. And verily, God is never unjust to His slaves/servants”. (51)

ذَلِكَ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ لَيْسَ بِظَلَّامٍ لِلْعَبِيدِ (51)

“(deeds) similar to the behavior of the people of Pharaoh, and those before them; they rejected the Signs of God, so God punished them for their sins/ crimes. Verily, God is All-Strong, severe in punishment.” (52)

كَدَأْبِ آَلِ فِرْعَوْنَ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ كَفَرُوا بِآَيَاتِ اللَّهِ فَأَخَذَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَوِيٌّ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ (52)

“That is because God will never change the Grace which He has bestowed on a people until they change what is in their (own) souls. And verily, God is All-Hearer, All-Knower”. (53)

ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَكُ مُغَيِّرًا نِعْمَةً أَنْعَمَهَا عَلَى قَوْمٍ حَتَّى يُغَيِّرُوا مَا بِأَنْفُسِهِمْ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ (53)

(Deeds) similar to the manner and behavior of the people of Pharaoh, and those before them: they denied and rejected (treated as false) the Signs of their Lord; so We destroyed them for their crimes/ sins, and We drowned the people of Pharaoh, for they were all transgressors/oppressors and wrong-doers. (54) 

كَدَأْبِ آَلِ فِرْعَوْنَ وَالَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ كَذَّبُوا بِآَيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ فَأَهْلَكْنَاهُمْ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَأَغْرَقْنَا آَلَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَكُلٌّ كَانُوا ظَالِمِينَ (54)

Verily, the worst of beasts/creatures in the Sight of God are those who reject/disbelief Him; so they will not believe. (55)

إِنَّ شَرَّ الدَّوَابِّ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ (55)

They are those with whom you made a covenant, but they break their covenant every time and they do not fear God. (56)

الَّذِينَ عَاهَدْتَ مِنْهُمْ ثُمَّ يَنْقُضُونَ عَهْدَهُمْ فِي كُلِّ مَرَّةٍ وَهُمْ لَا يَتَّقُونَ (56)

So if you gain the mastery over them in war, disperse –with them- those who follow them, so that they may remember and learn a lesson. (57)

فَإِمَّا تَثْقَفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْحَرْبِ فَشَرِّدْ بِهِمْ مَنْ خَلْفَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ (57)

If you [O’ Muhammad PPBUH] fear treachery from any people, throw back (their covenant) to them, (so as to be) on equal terms. Certainly, God do not love the treacherous. (58) 

وَإِمَّا تَخَافَنَّ مِنْ قَوْمٍ خِيَانَةً فَانْبِذْ إِلَيْهِمْ عَلَى سَوَاءٍ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْخَائِنِينَ (58)

 ((HADEETH SHARIF= S. Al-Bagara 2 verse 193: Al-anfal 8 verse 39: A) narrated Ibn Umar : God’ Messenger [PPBUH] said:”I have been ordered –by God- to fight against the people till they testify that {La Ilaha Illa Allah, wa Muhammadan Rasullah=?? ??? ??? ???? ? ????? ???? ???? } (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah), and perform Al-Salat (the prayers), and give Zakat (obligatory charity), so if they perform all that, they save their lives and properties from me, except for Islamic Laws, and their reckoning (accounts) will be with (done by) Allah). B/ narrated Abu-Hurrairah, God’s Messenger [PPBUH] said:” by Him (God) in Whose Hand my soul is, surely, the son of Maryam (Mary) [‘Isa – Jesus] will shortly descend amongst you people (Muslims), and will judge mankind justly by the Law of the Qur’an (as a just ruler), and will break the Cross and kill the pigs and abolish the Jizyah= tribute/tax taken from the people of the Scripture –Jews and Christians- who are under the protection of a Muslim government. This Jizyah=tribute/tax will not be accepted by ‘Isa/Jesus, and all mankind will be required to embrace Islam with no other alternative. Then there will be abundance of money and nobody will accept charitable gifts.- Saheeh Al-Bukhary.
COMMENTARY:     
(VERSES 38-64) The Battle of Badr brought to an issue the fight between Truth and Unbelief. It was the Day of Differentiation. Not for spoils was it won, nor by numbers; but by courage and planning, union of wills, and pooling of strength and resources. Above all by the help of God, Whose help is ever all sufficient.
(verses 38-39-40) A/ See S. A-Bagara 2 verse 193 and commentary: A. Justice and Faith: The Arabic word is (DEEN), which is comprehensive. It implies the ideas of indebtedness, duty, obedience, judgment, justice, faith, religion, customary rites, etc. the clause means; [until there is Deen for God]. B. If the opposite party cease to persecute you, your hostility ends with them as a party, but if does not mean that you become friends to oppression. Your fight is against wrong; there should be no rancor against men. C. if they cease from fighting and from the persecution of truth, God judges them by their actions and their motives, and would not wish that they should be harassed with further hostility. But if they refuse all terms, the righteous have nothing to fear: God will help and protect them.
(Verse 41)- A/The rule is that a fifth share is set apart for the Imam (the Commander) and the rest is divided among the forces. The fifth share reserved is expressed to be for God and the Apostle [PPBUH], and for charitable purposes; for those to whom charity is due. Ultimately everything is at the disposal of God and His Apostle [PPBUH] (verse 1): but four-fifths are divided, and only one-fifth is retained for the special purposes. The Imam has discretion as to the mode of division. In the Apostle’s life time a certain portion was assigned to the Apostle and his near relatives. B/Testing=Furqan: Criterion between right and wrong, decision between the forces of faith and unbelief. The Battle of Badr is called by this name. see verse 29 above. C/God’s power is shown in the events detailed in the three verses following (42-44). Leading to the complete victory of the Muslims over the Pagan Quraish.
(Verses 42-43)- A/The little Islamic force from Al-Medina went out to meet the big Meccan army, and they met on the two sides of a valley at Badr, while the Quraish cavalcade caravan was on lower ground towards the sea, about 3 miles from Badr. B/They were all at cross purposes. The caravan was making for Mecca, but scarcely thought it could get there. The Quraish force was trying to save the caravan and then annihilate the Muslims. The Muslims had decided to let the caravan alone but attack the Quraish army from Mecca, which they thought was going to be small -but which turned out to be big- more than three times their number. Yet the two forces met, precisely at the spot and at the time when a decisive battle should take place and the Muslims dispose of the pretensions of the Meccans. If they had carefully planned a mutual appointment, they could not have carried it out more precisely. On the Muslims side the few martyrs knew that the victory was theirs and those who survived the battle enjoyed the fruits of the victory. On the pagan side –both those who died and those who lived- knew fully the issue joined. Even psychologically both sides went in with full determination to decide the issue.
 (Verse 44)- The Muslim army –though they knew their worldly disadvantage- did not realize the full odds against them. The Meccans came exulting in any case, and they despised the contemptible little force opposed to them. Even though they thought the Muslims force was twice as it was (see Surat Al-Imran 3 verse 13), still that number was contemptible, when taken with its poor equipment. Both these psychological mistakes sub-served the main Plan, which was to bring the matter to a decisive issue, whether the Pagans of Mecca were to continue their arrogant oppression, or the religion of God was to be established in freedom and honor.
(Verses 45-46)- A fine description of the Muslim virtues which make for success and whose loss brings about humiliation and failure. “Power”: literally “wind” – the favorable wind for a sailing ship.
(Verse 47)- The true description of the Meccan army which met its doom.
(Verse 48)- It is the way with the leaders of evil, when they find their cause lost, that they wash their hands of their followers and leave them in the lurch. They see more clearly than their dupes. They are not simpletons: they know the consequences of the wrath of God. Satan’s “fear” of God is terror combined with hatred,- the very opposite of the feeling which is described in (Al-Taqwa=piety: the desire to avoid doing anything against God’s will, such desire being founded on trust in God and the love of God.
(Verse 49)- See Surat Al-Bagara 2 verse 10. The insincere man who thinks he can get the best of both worlds by compromising with good and evil, he is only increasing the disease of his heart, because he is not true to himself. Even the good which comes to him he can/will pervert to evil. So the rain which fills out the ear of corn or lends fragrance to the rose also lends strength to the thorn, or adds strength to the poison of the deadly night-shade.
(Verse 50)- In contrast to the taunt against those who trust in God, “that their religion has misled them” is shown the terrible punishment –after death- of those who laughed at Faith.
(Verses 51-52)- the punishment is shown to be due to their own deeds of wrong, because God is never unjust to the least of His servants.
(Verse 53)- God bestows His grace freely, but He never withdraw it arbitrarily. Before He changes their state and circumstances, an actual state of rebellion and contumacy has arisen in their own souls, which brings about its inevitable punishment.
(Verse 54)- These words from the address of the angels are quoted again, in order to add the comment that follows. Note that in verse 51, the words were that they rejected the Signs of God and were punished: here the words are that they treated the Signs as false and were destroyed;- a higher degree of guilt deserved a severe punishment.
(Verse 55)- In verse 22 we were warned against “the worst of beasts in the Sight of God”, who do not make use of their faculties of hearing, speaking and understanding –in the service of God- and in fact misuse their faculties to blaspheme God. The same brute creatures are shown here in another light: they are faithless both to God and man.
(Verses 56-57-58)- The immediate occasion was the repeated treachery of the Banu Quraiza after their treaties with Muslims. But the general lesson remains, as noted in these verses. Treachery in war is doubly wrong, for it endangers so many lives. Such treachery should be punished in such a way that it gets no chance again. Not only the actual perpetrators but those who follow their standard should be rendered powerless. And the broken treaty should be denounced so that the innocent party can at least fight on equal terms. From actual physical warfare we can carry the same lesson to spiritual warfare. A truce of understanding is possible with those who respect definite principles, not with those who have no principles and are merely out of oppression and wickedness.