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Monday, 23 October 2017
 

Surat Al-Maida -5- Medinian –Ayats 120 – Section – Eight– Verses 78-89

 

Cursed were those who disbelieved among the Children of Israel pronounced on them by the tongue of David, and of Jesus the son of Mary; that because they disobeyed and persisted in excessive transgressing beyond bounds. (78)

لُعِنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ عَلَى لِسَانِ دَاوُودَ وَعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ ذَلِكَ بِمَا عَصَوْا وَكَانُوا يَعْتَدُونَ (78)

Nor they used to forbid one another from the iniquities which they committed; evil indeed were the deeds which they did. (79)

كَانُوا لَا يَتَنَاهَوْنَ عَنْ مُنْكَرٍ فَعَلُوهُ لَبِئْسَ مَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ (79)

You see many of them taking the disbelievers as their protector/friends/helpers. Evil indeed are the works their own selves have sent forward before them; for that [reason] God’s wrath fell upon them and in torment they will abide. (80)

تَرَى كَثِيرًا مِنْهُمْ يَتَوَلَّوْنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَبِئْسَ مَا قَدَّمَتْ لَهُمْ أَنْفُسُهُمْ أَنْ سَخِطَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَفِي الْعَذَابِ هُمْ خَالِدُونَ (80)

If only they had believed in God, and in the Prophet [Muhammad PPBUH], and in what has been revealed to him; never would they have taken them (the disbelievers) for friends and protectors, but many of them are rebellious- wrong-doers and disobedient. (81)

وَلَوْ كَانُوا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالنَّبِيِّ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مَا اتَّخَذُوهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ وَلَكِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنْهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ (81)

Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers are the Jews, and the Pagans/Idolaters/polytheists; and you will find the nearest among them to the believers (Muslims) those who say:”we are Christians”, because among these men are priests and monks devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world and they are not arrogant. (82)   

لَتَجِدَنَّ أَشَدَّ النَّاسِ عَدَاوَةً لِلَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا وَلَتَجِدَنَّ أَقْرَبَهُمْ مَوَدَّةً لِلَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّا نَصَارَى ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ مِنْهُمْ قِسِّيسِينَ وَرُهْبَانًا وَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ (82)

And when they listen to the revelation which has been sent down to the Prophet (Muhammad PPBUH), you will see their eyes overflowing with tears, because of the truth they have recognized. They pray/say:”Our Lord! We believe; so write us with the witness. (83)

وَإِذَا سَمِعُوا مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ تَرَى أَعْيُنَهُمْ تَفِيضُ مِنَ الدَّمْعِ مِمَّا عَرَفُوا مِنَ الْحَقِّ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا آَمَنَّا فَاكْتُبْنَا مَعَ الشَّاهِدِينَ (83)

“And why should we not believe in God, and the truth which has come to us, and {we are} longing/ ambitious/enticing that our Lord to admit us (in Paradise) along in the company of the righteous people” (Prophet Muhammad PPBUH, and his companions). (84)  

وَمَا لَنَا لَا نُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَمَا جَاءَنَا مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَنَطْمَعُ أَنْ يُدْخِلَنَا رَبُّنَا مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الصَّالِحِينَ (84)

So because of what they said (their prayers), God has rewarded them with Gardens with rivers flowing underneath; they will abide therein forever –their eternal home. Such is the recompense of those who are good-doers. (85) 

فَأَثَابَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِمَا قَالُوا جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا وَذَلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ (85)

But those who disbelief and reject faith, and belie Our Signs/Verses/Evidences/revelations; they shall be the companions and the dwellers of Hell-Fire.86  

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِآَيَاتِنَا أُولَئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَحِيمِ (86)

O’ you who believe! Do not make unlawful the good things which God has made lawful for you. And do not transgress. Verily, God does not like the transgressors. (87)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تُحَرِّمُوا طَيِّبَاتِ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَلَا تَعْتَدُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ (87)

And eat of the things which God has provided for you –Lawful and Good- be pious and fear God in Whom you believe. (88)

وَكُلُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللَّهُ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي أَنْتُمْ بِهِ مُؤْمِنُونَ (88)

God will not call you to account for what is futile and unintentional in your oaths, but He will call you to account for your deliberate oaths: for its expiation feed ten indigent persons on a scale of the average of that which you feed your own families; or clothe them; or manumit a slave. But whosoever cannot afford (beyond his means), then he should fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths you have sworn. And guard/protect and keep your oaths. Thus God made clear  

لَا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَكِنْ يُؤَاخِذُكُمْ بِمَا عَقَّدْتُمُ الْأَيْمَانَ فَكَفَّارَتُهُ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ أَوْ كِسْوَتُهُمْ أَوْ تَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ ذَلِكَ كَفَّارَةُ أَيْمَانِكُمْ إِذَا حَلَفْتُمْ وَاحْفَظُوا أَيْمَانَكُمْ كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آَيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ (89)

 

(Hadeeth Sharif)- (1) –Verse 78: Narrated Abu Hurairah that he heard God’s Messenger saying:”God willed to test three Israelites who were a leper, a blind man and a bald-headed man. So, He sent them an angel who came to the leper and said: ’what thing do you like most?’ He replied, ‘good color and good skin, for the people have strong aversion to me.’ The angel touched him and his illness was cured, and he was given a good color and beautiful skin. The angel asked him, ‘what kind of property do you like best?’ He replied, ‘Camels’ so he –the leper- was given a pregnant she-camel and the angel said to him, ‘May God bless you in it’. The angel then went to the bald-headed man and said; ‘what thing do you like most?’ He said; ‘I like good hair and wish to be cured of this disease, for the people feel repulsion for me’. The angel touched him and his illness was cured, and he was given good hair. The angel asked him; ‘what kind of property do you like best?’ He replied; ‘Cows’. The angle gave him a pregnant cow and said; ‘May God bless you in it’. Then the angel went to the blind man and asked; ‘what thing do you like best?’ He said; ‘(I like) that God may restore my eyesight to me so that I may see the people.’ The angel touched his eyes and God gave back his eyesight. The angel asked him; ‘what kind of property do you like best?’ He replied; ‘Sheep’. The angel gave him a pregnant sheep. Afterwards all the three pregnant animals gave birth to young ones, and multiplied and brought forth so much that one of the three men had a herd of camels filling a valley, and one had a herd of cows filling a valley, and one had flock of sheep filling a valley. Then the angel disguised in the shape and appearance of a leper, and went to the leper and said; ‘I am a poor man, who has lost all means of livelihood while on a journey. So none will satisfy my need, except God and then you, so in the Name of Him Who has given you such nice color and beautiful skin, and so much property, I ask you to give me a camel so that I may reach my destination.’ The man replied ‘I have many obligations, so I cannot give you’. The angel said; ‘I think I know you. Were you not a leper to whom people had strong aversion? Weren’t you a poor man, and then God gave you all this property? He replied; ‘this is all wrong, I got this property through inheritance from my forefathers. The angel said; ‘if you are telling a lie then let God make you as you were before.’ Then the angel disguised in the shape and appearance of a bald man, went to the bald man and said to him the same as he told the first one, and he too answered the same as the first one did. The said; ‘if you are telling a lie, then let God make as you were before. The angel then disguised in the shape of a blind man, went to the blind man and said; ‘I am a poor man and a traveler, whose means of livelihood have been exhausted while on a journey, I have nobody to help me except God, and after Him you yourself, I ask you in the name of Him Who has given back your eyesight to give me a sheep, so that with its help I may complete my journey. The man said: ‘no doubt I was blind and God gave me back my eyesight, I was poor and God made me rich, so take anything you wish from my property  which you may take for God’s sake. The angel said; ‘keep your property with you. You -the three men- have been tested, and God is pleased with you, (blind man), and is angry with your two companions” –Saheeh Al-Bukhary.
(2)- Verse 89 (a): Narrated Abu Hurairah: The Prophet [PPBUH] said: “We Muslims are the last to come in the world, but we will be foremost on the Day of Resurrection”. God’s Messenger [PPBUH] also said: “by God, if anyone of you insists on fulfilling and oath by which he may harm his family, he commits a greater sin in God’s consideration than that of dissolving his oath and making its expiation with that which God has commanded” –Saheeh Al-Bukhary. –Verse 89(b): It is better not to take oath, but if you have taken it, and later you find a better solution for the problem, then act according to the better one and give expiation for the oath.
COMMENTARY:    
(Verse 78)- Matt. xxiii 33 (you serpents, you generation of vipers, how can you escape the damnation of Hell?); also Matt. xii 34.
(Verses 79-80-81)- There are bad men in every community, but if the leader connive at the misdeeds of the commonalty –and even worse- if the leaders themselves share in the misdeeds, as happened with the Pharisees and Scribes against whom Jesus spoke out, then that community is doomed.
(Verses 82-83-84-85-86)-(a) The meaning is not that they call themselves Christians, but that they are such sincere Christians that they appreciate Muslim virtues, as did the Abyssinians to whom Muslim refugees went during the persecution in Mecca. They would say: ”It is true we are Christians, but we understand your point of view, and we know you are good men”. They are Muslim at heart, whatever their label may be. (b) Qissisin=??????: translated as “devoted to learning”, following the commentators. It seems to be a foreign word possibly Abyssinian rather than Syriac, as reference seems to be to the Abyssinians Christians. Their real devotion to learning and the renunciation of the world by the Monastic Orders are contrasted with the hypocrisy and arrogance of the Pharisees and Scribes.
(Commentary –verses 87-111)- In the physical pleasures of life the crime is excess: there is no merit in abstention from things that are good and lawful. Take no rash vows, but to solemn oaths be faithful. Shun as abominations drinking and gambling, and superstitions of all kinds. But be reverent to what is sacred in rites and associations. Not the same are things good and things evil. Learn to distinguish, but pry not into questions beyond your ken. Guard your own souls in truth and justice, and no harm can befall you).
(Verses 87-88)- In pleasures that are good and lawful the crime is excess. There is no merit merely in abstention or asceticism, though the humility or unselfishness that may go with asceticism may have its value. In verse 82 Christian monks are praised for particular virtues, though here and elsewhere monasticism is disapproved of. It is lawful to use God’s gifts of all kinds, with gratitude; but excess is not approved of by God.
(Verse 89)- Vows of penance or abstention may sometimes be futile, or even stand in the way of a really good or virtuous act, (see Surat Al-Bagara 2 verses 224-226 and notes). The general principles established are: (1) take no futile oaths: (2) Do not use God’s Name –literally or in intention, to fetter yourself against doing a lawful or good act: (3) keep to your solemn oaths to the utmost of your ability: (4) where you are unable to do so, expiate your failure by feeding or clothing the poor, or manumit a slave by obtaining some one’s freedom, and if you have no means or capability, then by fasting. This is from a spiritual aspect. If any part suffers damage from your failure, compensation will be due to him; but that would be a question of law or equity.